features & functions
- national
features & functions
- provincial
features & functions
- local
local government across the GCR
future change
working together
intergovernmental relations
political engagement
where are we going?
civic engagement
interactions with government
interactions with leaders
satisfaction with government
local government under apartheid

Within the region’s cities and towns, local government was also divided under apartheid. Twenty years ago there were separate White Local Authorities and Black Local Authorities. There were also separate management structures for areas where Indian and coloured residents were forced to live under apartheid. These fragmented institutional arrangements were designed to ensure that resources in white areas were reserved for the benefit of whites. In a nutshell, to ensure that whites were not burdened by the development needs of other 'population groups’, urban apartheid pushed those seen to cost the tax base more than they contributed beyond the boundaries and ‘off the budgets’ of white local authorities. Poorer African, Indian and coloured residents ended up in under-developed areas, where few industrial and commercial activities were allowed, and where they were unable to benefit from the wealth and government resources circulating in white municipal areas.